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       © 1997
Oliver Baumann •
Ermenegildo Bidese

Medien: Genetik (Artikel/Papers) (genetics)

2021 The origin and legacy of the Etruscans through a 2000-year archeogenomic time transect  
  In: SCIENCE ADVANCES - Vol 7, Issue 39, 24. September 2021  
  The origin, development, and legacy of the enigmatic Etruscan civilization from the central region of the Italian peninsula known as Etruria have been debated for centuries. Here we report a genomic time transect of 82 individuals spanning almost two millennia (800 BCE to 1000 CE) across Etruria and southern Italy. During the Iron Age, we detect a component of Indo-European–associated steppe ancestry and the lack of recent Anatolian-related admixture among the putative non–Indo-European–speaking Etruscans. Despite comprising diverse individuals of central European, northern African, and Near Eastern ancestry, the local gene pool is largely maintained across the first millennium BCE. This drastically changes during the Roman Imperial period where we report an abrupt population-wide shift to ~50% admixture with eastern Mediterranean ancestry. Last, we identify northern European components appearing in central Italy during the Early Middle Ages, which thus formed the genetic landscape of present-day Italian populations.
  Link * Download Artikel 09/2021
  Link: Neue Hinweise zum Ursprung der Etrusker ( 09/2021
2018 Walter Pohl a.o.:
Langobarden: Genstudien erhellen Wanderschaft eines mysteriösen Volkes. Die Analyse zweier Gräberfelder aus der Zeit der Völkerwanderung belegt das Zusammenleben unterschiedlicher Ethnien
  In: Der Standard - 12. September 2018 - red, APA  
  In beiden Gräberfeldern setzte sich die Beigesetzten nicht aus bloß nur Männern eines einzelnen Germanenstammes zusammen, wie man sich die Völkerwanderung in deutsch-nationalen Zeiten gerne vorgestellt hat, erklärte Pohl. Im ungarischen Fundort waren es zwei und in Italien drei Familiengruppen, die sich nicht nur genetisch, sondern auch kulturell stark unterschieden.

 Im Kernbereich der Gräberfelder lagen sozial hochgestellte Männer in holzverkleideten Ruhestätten mit großzügigen Beigaben wie Waffen und Schildern. Rund um sie waren in ebenso reich ausgestatteten Gräbern die Frauen des selben Klans begraben, auch ihnen hatte man Schätze wie Broschen und Perlenketten mitgegeben. Diese Männer und Frauen waren ein genetisch abgeschlossener Familienverband, der sich nur wenig mit den anderen mischte, und am ehesten mit den heutigen Nord- und Mitteleuropäern verwandt ist. Dann wiederum gab es Gräber ohne Beigaben, bei denen die DNA in den menschlichen Überresten eher von südeuropäischer Abstammung zeugen. "Es lebten hier also unterschiedliche Gruppen zusammen und bildeten sozusagen Multikulti-Siedlungen", so Pohl.. 
  Link * Download Artikel 09/2018
2018 Walter Pohl a.o.:
Understanding 6th-century barbarian social organization and migration through paleogenomics
  In: nature communications - 11. September 2018  
  Despite centuries of research, much about the barbarian migrations that took place between the fourth and sixth centuries in Europe remains hotly debated. To better understand this key era that marks the dawn of modern European societies, we obtained ancient genomic DNA from 63 samples from two cemeteries (from Hungary and Northern Italy) that have been previously associated with the Longobards, a barbarian people that ruled large parts of Italy for over 200 years after invading from Pannonia in 568 CE. Our dense cemetery-based sampling revealed that each cemetery was primarily organized around one large pedigree, suggesting that biological relationships played an important role in these early medieval societies. Moreover, we identified genetic structure in each cemetery involving at least two groups with different ancestry that were very distinct in terms of their funerary customs. Finally, our data are consistent with the proposed long-distance migration from Pannonia to Northern Italy. 
  Link * Download Artikel 09/2018
2017 Stefania Sarno, Alessio Boattini,  et al.:
Ancient and recent admixture layers in Sicily and Southern Italy trace multiple migration routes along the Mediterranean
  In: - 16 May 2017  
  The Mediterranean shores stretching between Sicily, Southern Italy and the Southern Balkans witnessed a long series of migration processes and cultural exchanges. Accordingly, present-day population diversity is composed by multiple genetic layers, which make the deciphering of different ancestral and historical contributes particularly challenging. We address this issue by genotyping 511 samples from 23 populations of Sicily, Southern Italy, Greece and Albania with the Illumina GenoChip Array, also including new samples from Albanian- and Greek-speaking ethno-linguistic minorities of Southern Italy. Our results reveal a shared Mediterranean genetic continuity, extending from Sicily to Cyprus, where Southern Italian populations appear genetically closer to Greek-speaking islands than to continental Greece. Besides a predominant Neolithic background, we identify traces of Post-Neolithic Levantine- and Caucasus-related ancestries, compatible with maritime Bronze-Age migrations. We argue that these results may have important implications in the cultural history of Europe, such as in the diffusion of some Indo-European languages. Instead, recent historical expansions from North-Eastern Europe account for the observed differentiation of present-day continental Southern Balkan groups. Patterns of IBD-sharing directly reconnect Albanian-speaking Arbereshe with a recent Balkan-source origin, while Greek-speaking communities of Southern Italy cluster with their Italian-speaking neighbours suggesting a long-term history of presence in Southern Italy.
  Link * Download Artikel 05/2017
  Link: Mediterrane Geschichte im Spiegel der Genetik 19. Mai 2017 05/2017
  Link: Gemeinsames genetisches Erbe von Sizilien bis Zypern 18. Mai 2017 05/2017
2017 Paolo Anagnostou, Giovanni Destro Bisol,  et al.:
La sorprendente ricchezza genetica delle minoranze italiane.
  In: National Geographic Italia - 18 febbraio 2017 - Davide Michielin  
  Le comunità isolate mostrano più variabilità genetica di quelle aperte, rivela una ricerca; ma per studiare le popolazioni umane non basta analizzare il loro DNA.
 (...) Diverso è il caso dei cimbri, un altro gruppo di origine tedesca che si è insediato tra il decimo ed il dodicesimo secolo nell’altopiano di Asiago in Veneto e quello degli abitanti di Carloforte, enclave ligure situata nell'isola di San Pietro, sulla costa sud orientale della Sardegna. “I cimbri sono andati nel tempo incontro ad una parziale assimilazione culturale che li resi più ‘porosi’ agli influssi linguistici e genetici delle popolazioni locali. Anche se la lingua è in regressione, la cultura cimbra gode di una estrema vivacità, grazie all’associazionismo che tiene in vita le tradizioni”, prosegue Destro Bisol. 
  Link * Download Artikel 02/2017
2017 Paolo Anagnostou, Giovanni Destro Bisol,  et al.:
Overcoming the dichotomy between open and isolated populations using genomic data from a large European dataset
  In: nature - 01 february 2017 - Study  
  A breakdown of the cultural barrier might account for the behavior of Cimbrians. In fact, only a limited number of individuals is today able to use the Cimbrian language, a situation in contrast with the persistence of the original linguistic features in other German speaking communities42. This form of cultural assimilation, which started in the middle of the 16th century, probably increased the permeability of Cimbrians to gene flow from neighbouring populations. 
  Link * Download Artikel 02/2017
2014 Marco Capocasa, Giovanni Destro Bisol, Davide Pettener:
La nostra storia, tra cultura e geni.
  In: Le Scienze - 03 settembre 2014 - Numero 553  
  I fattori culturali aiutano a leggere la struttura genetica delle popolazioni italiane, mostrando una diversità unica in Europa
Die kulturellen Faktoren helfen die genetische Struktur der italienischen Populationen zu lesen,eine einzigartige Vielfalt in Europa
  Link * Download Artikel 09/2014
2014 Giovanni Destro Bisol, et al.: Italiani, i più ricchi in Europa … di diversità genetica.  
  Rassegna Stampa 01, Januar.  
  Uno studio coordinato dalla Sapienza rivela la ricchezza della biodiversità umana nel nostro Paese
 c’è maggiore distanza genetica tra i Sardi o le popolazioni Alpine e i loro gruppi vicinali che tra portoghesi e ungheresi 
  Link * Download Artikel 01/2014
2013 Valentina Coia et al.: Demographic Histories, Isolation and Social Factors as Determinants of the Genetic Structure of Alpine Linguistic Groups.  
  In: PLOS One. Volume 8, Issue 12, December.  
  In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers
at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. ... Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is
comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques.
  Link * Download Artikel 12/2013
2013 Peter Ralph & Graham Coop: Alle Europäer sind genetisch eine Familie. Bewohner Europas sind genetisch enger miteinander verwandt als gedacht.  
  In: scinexx - das wissensmagazin, 08. Mai 2013  
  Europäer sind enger untereinander verwandt als angenommen: Selbst Menschen, die durch den gesamten Kontinent voneinander getrennt sind, wie beispielsweise Iren und Türken, stammen von den gleichen Vorfahren ab. Und diese gemeinsamen Ahnen lebten erst vor tausend Jahren – also gemessen an der Menschheitsgeschichte quasi erst gestern, wie US-amerikanische Forscher im Fachmagazin „PloS Biology“ berichten. Ihre DNA-Analysen von rund 2.500 Menschen zeigen aber auch, welche Spuren die Geschichte in unserem Erbgut hinterließ.
Die genetischen Daten spiegeln aber auch entscheidende Ereignisse in der europäischen Geschichte deutlich wieder: So sind beispielsweise Italiener im Durchschnitt weniger eng untereinander und mit anderen Europäern verwandt. Ihre gemeinsamen Vorfahren liegen weiter zurück als die in anderen Gebieten. „Zudem gibt es in Italien eine deutlich ausgeprägte Substruktur genetisch voneinander abgegrenzter Bevölkerungsgruppen“, erklären die Forscher. Dies lasse sich dadurch erklären, dass gerade diese Region Europas in der Vergangenheit sehr häufig von wechselnden Kulturen unterschiedlicher Herkunft besiedelt wurde. Zudem reflektiere dies in Teilen auch die geografische Isolation von Populationen innerhalb Ittaliens.
  Link * Download Artikel 05/2013
2013 Peter Ralph & Graham Coop: The Geography of Recent Genetic Ancestry across Europe.  
  In: PLOS Biology, 07. Mai 2013  
  The recent genealogical history of human populations is a complex mosaic formed by individual migration, large-scale population movements, and other demographic events. Population genomics datasets can provide a window into this recent history, as rare traces of recent shared genetic ancestry are detectable due to long segments of shared genomic material. We make use of genomic data for 2,257 Europeans (in the Population Reference Sample [POPRES] dataset) to conduct one of the first surveys of recent genealogical ancestry over the past 3,000 years at a continental scale. We detected 1.9 million shared long genomic segments, and used the lengths of these to infer the distribution of shared ancestors across time and geography. We find that a pair of modern Europeans living in neighboring populations share around 2–12 genetic common ancestors from the last 1,500 years, and upwards of 100 genetic ancestors from the previous 1,000 years. These numbers drop off exponentially with geographic distance, but since these genetic ancestors are a tiny fraction of common genealogical ancestors, individuals from opposite ends of Europe are still expected to share millions of common genealogical ancestors over the last 1,000 years. There is also substantial regional variation in the number of shared genetic ancestors. For example, there are especially high numbers of common ancestors shared between many eastern populations that date roughly to the migration period (which includes the Slavic and Hunnic expansions into that region). Some of the lowest levels of common ancestry are seen in the Italian and Iberian peninsulas, which may indicate different effects of historical population expansions in these areas and/or more stably structured populations. Population genomic datasets have considerable power to uncover recent demographic history, and will allow a much fuller picture of the close genealogical kinship of individuals across the world.
  Link * Download Artikel 05/2013
2012 Valentina Coia et al.: Evidence of high genetic variation among linguistically diverse populations on a micro-geographic scale: a case study of the Italian Alps  
  In: Journal of Human Genetics (2012) 57, 254–260  
  Finally, our results reveal a striking difference in the way in which the two linguistically isolated populations are genetically related to the neighboring groups. The Ladin speakers were found to be genetically close to the Italian-speaking populations and differentiated from the other Dolomitic Ladins, whereas the German-speaking Cimbri behave as an outlier, showing signatures of founder effects and low growth rate
  Link * Download Artikel 03/2012
2007 Anders D. Børglum et al.: No Signature of Y Chromosomal Resemblance Between Possible Descendants of the Cimbri in Denmark and Northern Italy  
  In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132:278–284 (2007)  
  While Cimbri from Himmerland resembled their geographical neighbors from Denmark for the Y-chromosome markers,
Cimbri from Italy were significantly differentiated both from Cimbri from Himmerland and from Danes.
 Therefore, we were not able to show any biological relationship for uniparentally transmitted markers.
  Link * Download Artikel 11/2006
2005 Lutz Roewer et al.: Signature of recent historical events in the European Y-chromosomal STR haplotype distribution  
  In: Hum Genet (2005) 116: 279–291  
  By contrast, our analysis of ... Y-STRs ... reveals a signature of more recent historic events, not previously detected by other genetic markers. (...) This and other observed patterns of Y-STR similarity may plausibly be related to particular historical incidents, including, for example, the expansion of the Franconian and Ottoman Empires.
  Link * Download Artikel 05/2004
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